Introduction

In August 1991 the world saw the fall of the communist empire. The empire had lasted for nearly a century and controlled the key functions between several states in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. On the ashes of the communist regime, new states ought to adopt the western economic model, thus, comply with the rules of the international structure. The

western dominated structure exposed the newly independent states to greater economic competition and arising challenges.

From the establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States in 1991 to the initial call from Kazakhstan for the supranational regional organisation, the Eurasian…


Introduction

Money is everything, some people say. In our world, we tend to see money as defined objects. These objects might take different forms, including notes, coins, precious metals and even abstract items. For any exchange operation that people encounter on daily basis, these objects are used to lubricate the process of swapping one item for another. The observation described above presents a simplistic view of money. Money, in classical accounts, tends to ‘only have the role of a pregiven numeraire’ (Ingham 1996, p.508). The barter economic framework dominates the scholarly realm. The approach looks at money purely as a…


Introduction

The global computer network has become an encompassing part of everyday life. The major part of communication, decision-making and strategic discussion whether between states or among the people is now taking place on the Internet ground. With the Internet space acquiring a strategically important status as for the sovereign states as well as for the ordinary citizens, the question of managing the whole infrastructures has been raised. Moving from being exclusively a matter of a small technical group, the issues related to all layers of the Internet structure have acquired deeply political status. The sovereign states saw potential in the…


Introduction

European project remains a subject of close observation within international theories field. The decision made by major states in Europe to build all-encompassing project has been traditionally observed and, more importantly, interpreted through lenses of dominant theories of international relations. However, the time after the end of the Cold war, followed by the crash of the Soviet Union, brought up a new way of ideas. The thoughts of constructivist scholars posed an intellectual challenged to established theories of IR. The transformation which went across Europe and the European Union itself could not be supported with convincing explanations from rationalist…


Introduction

What we see and hear from the popular news sources comes is a result of foreign correspondents’ work. Their role includes “shaping the image of a country to the eyes of the foreign audience daily through their reporting” (Archetti 2011, p.2). However, modern trends in news production show a different perspective on the role of reporters. Professional Foreign correspondents “seem to become an endangered species” (Brüggemann et al. 2017, p. 540). Foreign correspondents become a subject of re-interpretation and constant questioning as a result of changes in the news sphere. The work environment becomes a subject of dramatic transformations…


How did the former republics influence formation process of the new Russian social identity after the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991?

Abstract

With the fall of the Soviet Union and break off its brother republics, the new Russian state was faced with a crisis of own identity. With scrapping off the communist past, the newly established government was in a search of an alternative definition of the reborn state. However, being previously defined by its borders, the new Russian state had to understand how to see itself concerning its new neighbours. Therefore, his research aims to explore the…


The decision made by President Trump to withdraw American troops, previously stationed in the northeast of Syria, led to the outburst of long-lasting dispute in the Middle-East. The Turkish government, headed by President Erdogan, launched a military offensive against American supported Kurdish group. The military situation on the border between Turkey and Syria resulted in an increased flow of people, causing displacement of. thousands of people living in northeast of Syria. The situation that has caused involuntary migration of people has received global attention. However, in the conflict that concerns international community and interests of external actors, the events have…


“The contemporary security threats facing Georgia”

Georgia is located in the heart of Caucasus region of Eurasia with its major neighbour Russia on the north. Since the existence of the Russian Empire, Georgian states were absorbed under Russian controls with a short period of independence. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Georgia stood at the forefront of breaking-away from Soviet rule and proclaiming its independence, facing a number of obstacles. In this essay, I will assess the contemporary security threats facing Georgian state as an international actor of my choice. I have identified two most relevant threats to Georgia…


“What does it mean to be a ‘political subject’?”

Our lives are determined by the past and present of the state politics. How we are perceived by the others depends on the policies of our native country, making human beings subordinates to the state affairs. The view of Sheldon S. Wolin (1994) that “politics is continuous, ceaseless, and endless” (p.11) made me think that people, without realising, become the subjects of constant oppression and domination of the structure they are living in. My personal realisation of the inability to escape the political oppression begun after starting education in England. Indirect…

Violetta Khayrullina

IP Student from City, University of London. Natively Russian, but prefer being “citizen of the world”.🌏 Mixed personality, but you’ll have a lot fun with me😺

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